Amerikalı tarixçi “erməni soyqırımı”nı növbəti dəfə ifşa etdi

“Rusiya Siyasi Ensiklopediyası” – ROSSPEN nəşriyyatında tanınmış amerikalı politoloq, Massaçusets Universitetinin professoru  Günter Levinin “Osmanlı imperiyasında erməni məsələsi: mif və reallıq” kitabı nəşr edilib. Nəşr “The Armenian Massacres in Ottoman Turkey A Disputed Genocide” (“Osmanlı Türkiyəsində erməni qırğınları: mübahisəli soyqırım”) kitabının tərcüməsidir.

Çoxmillətli Osmanlı imperiyasında “millət” sistemi mövcud idi. Bu sistemə görə,   hər dini icma  öz liderinə – müsəlmanlar Xəlifəyə, pravoslavlar  Konstantinopol patriarxına,  yəhudilər Hahambaşı baş ravvinə, erməni əhalisi  katolikosa tabe idi.

II Mehmetin (Mehmet Fatih) 1453-ci ilin mayında Konstantinopolun fəthindən dərhal sonra tətbiq etdiyi “millət” sistemi imperiyada dini azlıqların icmaları üçün özünüidarəetmə institutu idi.

Bu sistemdə ermənilər mərkəzi imperiya hakimiyyətinə öz xüsusi loyallığı və sadiqliyi ilə seçilirdi.  Hakimiyyət ermənilərə xüsusi iltifatla yanaşaraq  onları “sadiq təbəə” (“millet-i sadıka” və ya “tebe-i sadıka”) adlandırırdı.

Lakin 1877-1878-ci illər rus-türk müharibəsindən sonra hər şey dəyişdi. 3 mart 1878-ci il tarixli San-Stefano sülh müqaviləsi, həmçinin 13 iyul 1878-ci il  Berlin traktatı Osmanlı imperiyasının üzərinə ermənilərin həyat şəraitinin yaxşılaşdırılması və onların təhlükəsizliyinin təminatı öhdəliyini qoyurdu.

Osmanlı hökuməti bu məqsədlə görülən tədbirlər barədə Qərb dövlətlərinin məlumatlandırılmasına dair öhdəlik götürmüşdü. Rusiya və Qərb dövlətləri, ilk növbədə İngiltərə ermənilərə havadarlıq edərək onların İmperiyaya qarşı mübarizəsini dəstəkləyirdi.

Ermənilərin liderləri Berlin traktatının şərtlərindən razı deyildi – Balkan xalqları ilə yanaşı onlar da öz dövlətini yaratmaq hüququ əldə etmək istəyirdilər.

1887-ci ildə Cenevrədə erməni tələbələrin yaratdığı Qnçakyan Sosial-Demokrat Partiyası, həmçinin 1890-cu ilin iyununda Tiflisdə bütün inqilabi qüvvələrin yeni təşkilatda birləşməsi və nəticədə Erməni İnqilabi Federasiyası ( (“Daşnaksütyun”) adlı yeni partiyanın yaradılması bu ideyanın bələdçisi oldu.

Onlar ümummilli üsyanla yanaşı öz məqsədlərinə çatmaq yolunda mühüm alətlərdən biri kimi siyasi terroru da nəzərdən keçirirdilər. 1890-cı ilin ortalarında İmperiyanın erməni əhalisi arasında ilk təlatüm başladı və tezliklə faciəvi hadisələrə səbəb oldu.

Erməni siyasi partiyaları Birinci Dünya Müharibəsinin başlamasını və Osmanlı İmperiyasının buna qoşulmasını İmperiyanın şərq vilayətlərinin ərazisində erməni dövlətinin yaradılması ilə bağlı çoxdankı ideyanın həyata keçirilməsi üçün ən münasib amil hesab etdilər.

Bu, hətta qnçakçıların proqramının 6-cı maddəsində də əksini tapmışdı. Bu sənəd Osmanlı imperiyasının müharibəyə cəlb edilməsini, partiyanın qarşısına qoyulan vəzifələrin təcili həyata keçirilməsi məqsədilə ümumi üsyanın təşkilini nəzərdə tuturdu.

Öz növbəsində Antanta ölkələrinin əlində də erməni amili Osmanlı imperiyasına qarşı ən güclü silah idi. Qafqaz cəbhəsində Türkiyəyə qarşı müharibənin uğurlu nəticəsinə görə Rusiya ermənilərin roluna ümud edirdi.

Çar II Nikolay 1914-cü ilin noyabrında Tiflisə öz səfəri çərçivəsində katolikos V Gevorkla görüşərək  ona vəd etmişdi ki,

“erməni məsələsi müharibənin sonunda sülh danışıqları zamanı ermənilərin gözləntilərinə uyğun olaraq həll olunacaq”.

Bu, təkcə Rusiyada deyil, həm də Türkiyədəki erməni əhalinin hərəkətə keçməsi üçün mühüm siqnal idi. Hətta müharibənin əvvəlində Rusiya hökuməti türkiyəli ermənilərin silahlandırılmasına və  onların Türkiyə ordusunun arxa cəbhəsində üsyan təşkil etməsinə görə ilkin xərclər üçün 242 900 ayırmışdı.

Kitabın sonuncu-dördüncü hissəsində Levi erməni məsələsinin ən mühüm aspektini nəzərdən keçirir: doğrudanmı Türkiyə rejimi ermənilərin məhvini planlaşdırmışdı, həmçinin insan itkisinə görə məsuliyyət məsələsini.

Müəllif bildirir ki, 1915-1916-cı illər kütləvi qətllərində Türkiyə mərkəzi hökumətinin günahını sübut edən əsl sənədli dəlillər yoxdur və belə materialların olmadığı bir şəraitdə ermənilər orijinallığı şübhəli olan “Naim bəy Antonyanın xatirələri” kimi materiallara və ya 1919-1920-ci illərdə türk hərbi tribunallarının istifadə etdiyi ehtimal olunan sənədlərin surətlərinə əsaslanırlar.

Müəllif aksiyanın erməniləri qəsdən qırmaq planının olması ilə bağlı ermənilərin versiyasının doğruluğunu şübhə altına alır. İki cəbhədə – Rusiyaya qarşı Şərq və Qərb cəbhələrində hərbi əməliyyatlar, primitiv nəqliyyat sistemi, ərzaq çatışmazlığı, dəhşətli sanitariya şəraiti köçkün ermənilər arasında çoxsaylı qurbanlara səbəb oldu.

Müəllifin 1915-ci ildə Osmanlı imperiyasında erməni əhaliyə qarşı  hadisələrlə bağlı gəldiyi nəticə bu mövzunun tarixinin və ABŞ, Almaniya və Böyük Britaniyada çoxsaylı sənədlərin dərin  təhlilinə əsaslanır.

“Turan”



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