Balın keyfiyyəti ilə bağlı beynəlxalq standartlar sərtləşir

Azərbaycan balı bu şərtlərlə ayaqlaşacaqmı?

Tez-tez şahid oluruq ki, bal satanlar öz məhsullarını bu adlarla müştəriyə “Lənkəran balı”, “Ordubad balı”, “Lerik balı” reklam edir. Bunlar standartdırmı? Bu yarlıq həmin balın keyfiyyətindən xəbər verirmi?

Mütəxəsssilər yox deyir, bəs o zaman balı necə tanımalı?

Azərbaycan Standartlaşdırma, Metrologiya və Patent üzrə Dövlət Komitəsinin 2016-cı ildə qəbul etdiyi dövlət standartında balın tərkibi konkret təsvir olunub və nəyin nə qədər olmasına dair göstəricilər müəyyənləşib.

“Balın əsas tərkibi karbohidratlar, ilk növbədə fruktoza və qlükoza, həmçinin üzvi və qeyri-üzvi turşular, fermentlər və mikroelementlərdir. Balın rəngi müxtəlif ola bilər – demək olar ki, tamamilə rəngsizdən, tünd qəhvəyiyə kimi. Konsistensiyasına görə bal duru, qatı, qismən və ya bütünlüklə kristallaşmış olur. Ətri: xoşagələn, bitki növündən asılı olaraq, zəifdən güclüyə kimidir”. AZS 849 – 2016 dövlət standartında balın keyfiyyət və xassələri bir-bir sadalanır və konkret normalar göstərilir.

“Nümunələri kod altında yoxlayırıq”

Respublika Baytarlıq Laboratoriyasının müdiri Füzuli Quliyev AzadlıqRaduosu-na deyir ki, onlar bal nümunələrini bu standart əsasında yoxlayırlar: “Nümunələr laboratoriyada kodlaşdırılır və sahibinin kimliyi bilinmir. Nümunə standarta uyğun gəlirsə, o zaman keyfiyyətli bal sayılır, hansı göstəriciyə uyğun gəlməsə, o zaman bu, rəydə öz əksini tapır”.

Balın təbii, ya da süniliyinin adi şəraitdə yoxlanılmasını mümkün saymayan mütəxəssis deyir ki, təbii balı bir peşəkar arıçılar, bir də laboratoriya analizləri müəyyənləşdirə bilər. Müasir avadanlıqlar arının şirəni çiçəkdən, yoxsa şəkərdən çəkdiyini dərhal üzə çıxarır. Şəkərdən alınmış ballar təbii sayılmır və geri qaytarılır: “Arıların saxlanması, qidalanması üçün ona şəkər verilir, amma qış yuxusundan ayılandan sonra arı şirəni çicəklərdən, bitkilərdən yığmalıdır. Laboratoriyada da görünür ki, şəkərdən alınıb, yoxsa çiçəkdən”.

Bəs çiçək tozlarının analizi də aparılırmı? Füzuli Quliyev bunun onların laboratoriyasında mümkün olduğunu, amma kütləvi analizlərin aparılmadığını söyləyir.

Laboratoriya müdiri əlavə edir ki, sovetlər dönəmində standartlar regionlara görə müəyyənləşdirilirdi, indi isə ölkə üzrə orta göstəricilər əsasında. Üstəlik, vahid standart tətbiq edilir: “Ancaq iqlim şəraitindən, ölkənin bitki örtüyünün zənginliyindən asılı olaraq, balın tərkibi baxımından hər ölkənin öz göstəricisi var”.

BəsAzərbaycandahansıbölgəninbalınıdahayüksəkkeyfiyyətlisaymaqolar? FüzuliQuliyev fərqləndirməaparmaqistəmir, ancaqdeyirki, ekolojibaxımdan, təbiiki, dağbalıdahakeyfiyyətliolur.

“Difər arı məhsulu üzrə standartlar yoxdur”

“Təbii balın keyfiyyətini ölçmək və arı xəstəliklərinin analizi üçün zəruri laboratoriyalar yoxdur. Balın keyfiyyətini analiz edərkən balın hansı bitkidən çəkildiyini, balın tərkibində GMO-nun mövcudluğu müəyyənləşdirmək mümkün deyil. Mövcud laboratoriyalar arıçılıqda olan probemləri tam müəyyənləşdirməyə imkan vermir”. İqtisadi Təşəbbüslərə Yardım İctimai Birliyinin ABŞ Beynəlxalq İnkişaf Agentliyinin maliyyə dəstəyi ilə həyata keçirilən “Azərbaycanda kiçik sahibkarlığın inkişafına dəstək” layihəsi çərçivəsində aparılan layihədə müəlliflər bu nəticəyə gəlib.

Tədqiqatda göstərilir ki, balda zəhərli maddələrin qalıqlarının, habelə GMO-lu bitkilərin nektarının analizini aparan laboratoriyalar yoxdur.

Tədqiqat müəlliflərindən biri, Samir Əliyev “bastoinfo”ya deyib ki, mövcud standartlar beynəlxalq tələblərə cavab vermir: “Mövcud standartlar arı məhsullarının keyfiyyətinin təmin olunmasını tam müəyyən etmək iqtidarında deyil. Çünki mövcud standart, ancaq təbii balın istehlak xassələrinə dair normaları nəzərdə tutur. Halbuki, hazırki dövrdə arıçılıq təsərrüfatlarında digər məhsullar (propolis, arı südü, arı zəhəri və s.) alınır. Bundan başqa, arı məhsullarının qablaşdırılmasına, daşınmasına dair standartların da qəbuluna ehtiyac var”.

Keyfiyyət meyarları dəyişir

Ekspert əlavə edir ki, yerli təbii bal Respublika Baytarlıq Laboratoriyasında bakterioloji, kimya-toksikoloji, radioloji və digər müayinələrdən keçirilərək qida üçün yararlığı müəyyən edildikdən sonra satışa buraxılır: “Bir sıra xarici ölkələrdə balın keyfiyyətini analiz edərkən balın hansı bitkidən çəkildiyini, balın tərkibində GMO-nun mövcudluğu müəyyənləşdirilir. Xüsusilə də intensiv kənd təsərrüfatı əkini olan yerlərə yaxın ərazilərdə arıçılıq təsərrüfatı olduqda bu həm arıların qırılmasına səbəb olur, həm də arının ifraz etdiyi balın balın tərkibində aşkar edilir. Bu isə həmin balın ixracı üşün problemlər yaradır”.

Samir Əliyev əlavə edir ki, balın keyfiyyətinə qarşı beynəlxalq tələblər getdikcə sərtləşməkdədir. Onun sözlərinə görə, əvvəllər balın rəngi, dadı, qlükoza və fruktozanın nisbəti, suyun miqdarı kimi standartlar əsas götürülürdü: “Amma indi əsas meyar balda pestisidlərin, veterinar dərmanların, radionuklidlərin, geni modifikasi edilmiş bitkilərdən götürülmüş maddələrin və digər toksik maddələrin qalığının olmamsı əsas meyarlardır”.

Ekspert vurğulayır ki, elə olkələr var, orda ümumiyyətlə antibiotik istifadə olunmur: “Məsələn, son 20 ildə Yeni Zelandiya balda antibiotik aşkar edilməyib, – o deyir.

Azərbaycan Standartlaşdırma, Metrologiya və Patent üzrə Dövlət Komitəsinin mətbuat xidmətinin rəhbri Fazil Talıblı AzadlıqRadiosuna deyir ki, AZS 849 – 2016 standartı beynəlxalq tələblərə uyğundur və elə bu il qəbul edilib. Onun sözlərinə görə, azərbaycanlı fermerlər bu standart əsasında istehsal etdikləri balı rahatca dünya bazarına çıxara bilərlər.

İqtisadi Təşəbbüslərə Yardım İctimai Birliyinin tədqiqatçıları isə hesab edirlər ki, ölkədə arıçılığın inkişafı üçün bir sıra normativ aktlaların və yeni standartların qəbuluna ehtiyac var: “Arı məhsullarının ayrı-ayrı çeşidləri üzrə keyfiyyət standartlarının, habelə bu məhsulların qablaşdırılması, saxlanması, daşınması və satışı ilə bağlı milli standartların hazırlanması məqsədəuyğun olardı”, tədqiqatda vurğulanır.

S.Mehdiyeva

Bastainfo.com



This post has been seen 28 times.

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